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r:ljdiments of 

MUSIC 



^(ix.ucj'T So i <^. oh,$iO- 




HARVARD 

COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



1 



1 




3 2044 102 782 737 




IS^MkL^M. 



^U^f/7 Myj.j^. 



Rudiments of Music 



Edited by 

James M. McLaughlin, A.M. 

Director of Music, Boston Public Schools 



FOR GRADED SCHOOLS 



The Catholic Music Publishing Company 

Boston 

1906 









Copyright, 1906 

BY 

THE CATHOLIC MUSIC PUBLISHING COMPANY 



Stanbope press 

r. H. OILSOM COMPANl 
BOSTON. U. •. A. 



Contents 



PAGES 



TTiird, Fourth, and Fifth Grades 1-7 

Sixth Grade 7-15 

Seventh Grade 15-19 

Eighth Grade 19-29 

Ninth Grade 29-37 

High School 37-41 

Appendix 

Table of Key Signatures 42-43 

Table of Major Keys , 44 

Diagram showing Key Relationship facing 45 

Circle of Keys 46 

Major Scales and their Relative Minor Scales 47-50 

2ofind Pitch of Keys 5^-53 

Terms and Signs of Expression 54-55 

Index 56 



Rudiments of Music 



Third, Fourth, and Fifth Grades 



To the Teacher : Pupils of Fifth Grade and upwards should illus- 
trate. 



I. What is the Staff ? 

Five horizontal lines and four equal spaces are called 
the staff. 



2. How are the lines and spaces counted ? 
The lines and spaces are counted from the lowest up- 
wards. 



^jThlidipM* 



3. What are bars? 

Bars are lines drawn perpendicularly across the stafl. 

4. How many kinds of bars are there ? 
There are two kinds of bars, single and double. 

5. What is a single bar? 

A single bar is a light line and is usually called a bar. 



Rudiments of Music. 



BAR 

6, What is a double bar ? 

A double bar is usually two vertical lines placed together. 

Other kinds of double bars are two heavy lines, a^ one 
light and one heavy line, b^ and sometimes a single heavy 
line, c. 



i 



i ^ 



7. What is a measture ? 

The space between two bars is called a measure. The 
word measure is also used to denote a division of time, that 
is, a group of strong and weak beats. 



MEASURE 

8. What is a clef ? 

A clef is a character placed upon a staff to indicate the 
name and pitch of one of its degrees, so that the names of the 
others may be known. 

9. What does the word clef mean ? 

The word clef is from the French language and means 
" key." 

10. What are the two clefs in common use ? 
The G clef and the F clef. 

11. What is the 6 clef? 



The sign ^ is called the G clef. Its lower loop turns 
around the second line and fixes C upon that line. 



Rudiments of Music 



The staff on which the G clef is placed is usually called the 
treble staff. 

12. What is the P clef ? 

The sign ®: is called the F clef. It turns around the 

fourth line and fixes F upon that line. 



Ml 



The staff on which the F clef is placed is called the bass 
staff. 

13. From what do the clefs derive their names ? 

The clefs derive their names from the Gothic letters G and 
F of which they are variations. 

14. What are notes ? 

Notes are characters or sign^ representing musical sounds. 

15. How many kinds of notes are there in common use ? 
There are six kinds of notes in common use : 

1. ^ Whole-note, — an open note-head without stem. 

2. (^ Half-note, — an open note-head with stem. 

3. f Quarter-note, — a closed note-head with stem. 

4. 5 Eighth-note, — a closed note-head with stem 
and one hook. 

5 . S Sixteenth-note , — a closed note-head with stem 

and tii'o hooks. 

^- y Thirty-second-note, — a closed note-head 

with stem and tAree hooks. 

16. What are leger lines ? 

Leger lines are lines below or above the staff. They are 
used to represent sounds higher or lower than notes on or 
within a staff. 



Rudiments of Music 



The additional lines are ako called added lines and may 
be designated thus : the first line above (or below); the sec- 
ond line above (or below), etc. 

The extra spaces are called the first space above (or be- 
lo^); the second space above (or below), etc. 

17. When is a note said to be on a line ? 

A note is said to be on a line when th« line crosses the 
center of the note-head. 



^ 



18. When is a note said to be in a space ? 

A note is said to be in a space when the note-head is in 
the space between two lines or in the space above or the 
■space below the staff or an added line. 



=£: 



^ 



19. What is pitch ? 

Pitch is the acuteness or gravity of any particular sound. 

20. What is a scale ? 

A scale is an ascending or descending series of whole and 
^alf steps arranged in a given order. 



Do 
Si 

La 

5 — Sol 

Fa 
Mi 

— 2 — Re 

Do 



c 


« 


B 


HALF-STEP 

7 




8TIP 


A 


6— 




8T£P • 


G 


5 




STEP 


F 

S 


. 4 

HALF-STEP 

3 




STEP 


D 


2 




STEP 


€ 


1 



The major scale, — a succession of five 
steps and two half steps in the following 
order : i to 2, a step ; 2 to 3, a step ; 3 to 
4, a half -step ; 4 to 5, a step ; 5 to 6, a 
st«p ; 6 to 7, a step ; 7 to 8, a half-step. 
A major scale is a scale whose first third is 
a major third. See No. 146. 



Rudiments of Music 



21. How many names have the tones of the scale ? 

The tones of the scale are known by three sets of names : 
scale-names or number-names, syllable-names, and pitch-names 
or letter-names. 

22. What are the scale-names ? 

The scale-names are one, two, three, four, five, six, 
seven, eight, commonly represented by figures, 1,2, etc. 

23. What are the syllable-names or syllables? 

The syllable-names are Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Si, 
Do. 

24. What are the pitch-names ? 

The pitch-names are the first seven letters of the alpha- 
bet in special order, a letter being repeated for the eighth 
sound : a, b, c, d, e, f, g. 

25. What are rests? 

Rests are signs indicating silence. 

26. How many kinds of rests are there in common use ? 
There are six kinds of rests in common use named after 

notes of corresponding time-value. 



TABLE OF RESTS AND NOTES 
Rests Notes 



^- Whole cf 

.^ Half p' 

X Quarter f 

1 Eighth J 

q Sixteenth ^ 

3 Thirty-second J 



27. What is a whole rest and where is it placed ? 
A whole rest is an oblong placed under a line. 



i= 



Rudiments of Music 



28. What is a half rest and where is it placed ? 
A half rest is an oblong over a line. 



i 



29. Describe a quarter rest. 

A quarter rest is like the letter z reversed. 



i 



30. How is an eighth rest made ? 

An eighth rest consists of a stem and one hook (toward 
the left). 



W- 



31. What is time or measure ? 

The terms time and measure are used to express the idea 
of time divided into equal periods regulated by accent (with 
regular accentuation). 

32. How is time or measure expressed ? 

Time or measure is expressed by a sign called the time 
signature, two figures, one above the other in fractional form, 
placed on the staff at the beginning of a piece. 



33. What does the upper figure denote ? 

The upper figure denotes the number of parts or beats 
contained in each measure and extends from the highest line 
to the middle line. 

34. What does the lower figure denote ? 

The lower figure denotes the kind of note used to represent 
the parts or beats and extends from the middle line to the 
lowest line. 

6 



Rudiments of Music 



Thus, the time signature ? means two quarter-notes or their 

value in a measure and is called two-four time. 

35. What kind of a note or rest equals a whole beat in any 
kind of time ? 

A note or rest equal to the value represented by the lower 
figure of the time signature equals a whole beat in any 
kind of time. Thus in ^ the lower figure represents a quarter. 

Therefore, a quarter note or rest is a whole beat note 
or jest. In X an eighth note or rest is a whole beat. 

36. What kind of a note or rest equals a combined beat ? 
A note or rest equal to twice the value represented by 

the lower figure of the measure-sign or time-signature is a 

combined beat note or rest. Thus, in ^ a combined beat 
note or rest would be a half note. 

In saying that pupils of the Fifth Grade and upwards shall illustrate, 
it was thought that pupils of lower grades might not be able to form the 
characters, but of course it is well for them to see the different repre- 
sentations and thus become familiar with them. 



Sixth Grade 

37. How is time divided ? 

Time is divided into simple and compound. 

38. What is simple time? 

Simple time is that in which each measure is divided into 
two, three, or four equal parts. 




Rudiments of Music 



39. What is compound time ? 

Compound time is that in which each measure is divided 
into six, nine, and twelve equal parts in groups of threes. 




i| jT] JT3 J T 2 m II 

40. How many kinds of simple time are there ? 

There are three kinds of simple time ; duple, triple, and 
quadruple. 

41. What is simple duple time ? 

Simple duple time, also called two-part measure, is an 
accented beat followed by an imaccented one. 



J Jl J J 



etc. 



42. What is simple triple time ? 

Simple triple time, also called three-part measure, is an 
accented beat followed by two unaccented ones. 



J-J J I J J J 



etc. 



43. What is simple quadruple time ? 

Simple quadruple time, also called four-part measure, has 
two accented beats, a stronger and a weaker one, each fol- 
lowed by an unaccented beat. 



J J J J I J J J J 



etc. 



44. How many kinds of compound time are there } 
There are three kinds of compound time ; compound duple, 
compound triple, and compound quadruple. 

8 



Rudiments of Music 



45. What is compound duple time ? 
Compound duple time is two-part measure, each primary 
part of which is sub-divided into three equal parts. 



U- 



-l 



M 



§///;//! rn m- 



46. What is compound triple time ? 
Compound triple time is three-part measure, each primary 
part of which is sub-divided into three equal parts. 



J J- 



-J- 



i- 



I 



-J- 



JT3-H 



47. What is compound quadruple time? 
Compound quadruple time is four-part measure, each pri- 
mary part of which is sub-divided into three equal parts. 



4-J J J J- 






-l—l—l 



48. What note or rest equals a half or divided beat in any 
kind of time ? 

A note or rest which is half the value of the note repre- 
sented by the lower figure of the time-signature equals a 
half or divided beat in any kind of time. Thus in 4 time an 
eighth note or rest equals a half beat. 

49. What kind of a note or rest equals a sub-divided beat 
in any kind of time ? 

A note or rest which is one-fourth the value of the note 
represented by the lower figure of the time signature equals 
a sub-divided beat in any kind of time. 

9 




Rudiments of Music 



50. What is a triplet? 

A triplet is a group of three notes sung or played in the 
time of two of the same value. The figure 3 with a slur 
or curved line is usually placed over or under the notes. 



TRIPLETS 




^U 


r 


r 


J'J'J' 


/ 


j^ 



51. What is a brace ? 

The vertical straight line or a vertical double-curved line 
which joins two or more staves is called a brace. It indi- 
cates that the notes on the staves thus connected should be 
sung or played at the same time. 



52. What is accent? 

Accent is the stress or emphasis given to one or more beats 
in a measure. 



^— J I J J 



J-J-J_J- 



etc. 



etc. 



■ V V 

53. What is primary or rhythmic accent? 

The principal accent is called primary or rhythmic ac- 
cent, and in the notation its place is indicated by the bar 
which is sometimes called the rhythm-mark. See Nos. 41, 

42, 43- 

54. Which beat receives accent in duple time ? 

In duple time the first beat is accented. See No. 41. 

55. Which beat receives accent in triple time ? 

In triple time the first beat is accented. See No. 42. 

56. Which beats receive accent in quadruple time ? 

In quadruple time the first and third beats are accented. 
See No. 43. 



Rudiments of Music 



57. Which beat receives accent in compound duple time ? 
In compound duple time the first beat is accented. See 

No. 45. 

58. Which beat receives accent in compound triple time ? 
In compound triple time the first beat is accented. See 

No. 46. 

59. Which beats receive accent in compound quadruple 
time? 

In compound quadruple time the first and third beats are 
accented. See No. 47. 

TABLE OF TIME SIGNATURES 



Simple 


^ Compound 




1 


Value of 

each 
measure 


No. 

of 

beats 


Value 

of 
each 
iMat 


I 

CO 


Value of each - 
measure 


No. 
of 
beats 


Value 

of 
each 
beat 






A 2 


J J 


2 


J 


6 
4 


J. J. 


2 


J. 


i 


1 


2 
4 


J J 


2 


J 


6 

8 


J. J. 


2 


J. 


|2 




2 
4 


/ / 


2 


^ 


6 
16 


/. -r. 


2 


-r. 


c5 




3 

2 


JJJ 


3 


1 


9 
4 


a * G * a * 


3 


J. 




JU 


3 
4 


JJJ 


3 


J 


9 

8 


J 1 1 
J- 4- 4* 


3 


J. 


If 
ll 




3 

8 


-r-r-r 


3 


J^ 


9 
16 


^ ^ N 

^* ^* 4* 


3 


^ 





«> 


(tJorf 


JJJJ 


4 


J 


12 
4 


^ •^•G*G* 


4 


J. 


-a 
Is 


a 

3 

•a 

3 


CO"-! 


JJJJ 


4 


J 


12 
8 


Jill 

4'4'4-S' 


4 


1 


'1 




4 

8 


^ N N ^ 
* » 4 4 


4 




12 
16 


^ > ^ ^ 

4* 4* 4*4* 


4 


j^. 


0^ 



Rudiments of Music 



The signs Q and (^ (barred semicircle or barred Q ) 
in the above table are variably used. Q may be the time-sig- 
nature for any form of quadruple rhythm. (^ commonly signi- 
fies two-part rhythm, but the two signs have been used inter- 
changeably. For the sake of clearness these letters should 
be superseded by the figured time-signatures given in the 
table. 

60. What is a tie? 

A tie is a curved line joining two notes of the same pitch, 
which indicates that they are to be sounded as one note equal 
in length to the two. 



■ ^^^m = ^^ 



61. What is the effect of a dot placed after a note ? 

A dot after a note or rest adds to it one-half of its origi- 
nal value. 

^ . is equal to a ^ and a J tied. a>*= ^ f^ 

J . is equal to a J and a J tied, f^ * = f^ f 

J ^ is equal to a J and a J^ tied. T * — T Z 

J^, is equal to a J^ and a J^ tied. * * — p J 

62. What is the effect of two dots placed after a note ? 
Two dots after a note — a double-dotted note — increase 

its duration three-fourths of its original value. 

^ . • is equal to a ^ and a J and a J tied to each other; ^ J J 
J . , is equal to a J and a J and a J^ tied, 
J , ^ is equal to a J and a ^ and a ^ tied. 
J\ . is equal to a J^and a J^and a j^ tied, 

12 



Rudiments of Music 



63. What is the meaning of dots placed at the beginning 
or end of certain passages ? 

Dots at the beginning of a passage or after a bar or dou- 
ble bar indicate that the music which follows is to be re- 
peated. Dots at the end of a passage or before a bar or 
double bar indicate that the music which precedes is to-be 
repeated. They are called repetition dots or the repeat. 



See 



64, Does a tie ever connect more than two notes ? 
A tie is used only to connect two successive notes. 

No. 60. 

65. What is a slur? 

A slur is a curved line placed over or under two or more 
notes indicating that they are to be played or sung in a 
smooth, connected manner. In vocal music a slur indicates 
that only one syllable should be sung to the notes which are 
slurred. 



^N 



66. What is a phrase mark? 

A phrase mark is a curved line indicating the rhythmical 
grouping of notes. 



jtlt ^f J4q tB 



67. What is the hold or pause ? 

The hold or pause is a dot under or over a small curved 
line. It means that the note or rest over or under which 
it is placed is to be held longer than usual. 




Rudiments of Music 



68. What is tempo or movement? 

Tempo, meaning time or movement, is the rate of sp^ed 
of the music — the intervals of time in which the primary 
accents follow each other. 

69. How many principal kinds of tempo are there ? 
There are three principal kinds of tempo : slow, mod« 

erate, and quick. 

70. How is movement indicated ? 

Movement is generally indicated by words taken from the 
Italian language. The most commonly used are : 

Slow tempo. Grave (gra'va). 
Lento (lan'to).^ 
Adagio (a-da'jo). 
Moderate tempo. Andante (an-dan'ta).^ 

Moderate (mod-e-ra'to). 
Quick tempo. Allegro (al-la'gro). 

Presto (pres'to). 
For additional terms of expression see pages 54-55. 

71. What is a sharp? 

A sharp is the sign jj^ which, occurring either before a note 
or in the signature, raises the pitch of a note a half step. 

72. What is a flat ? 

A flat is the sign b which, occurring either before a note or 
in the signature, lowers the pitch of a note a half step. 

73. What is a double sharp? 

A double sharp, x. «» is equivalent to two successive sharps 
raising the pitch of a note a whole step instead of a half step. 

74. What is a double flat? 

A double flat, W?, has the effect of two successive flats, 
lowering the pitch of a note a whole step instead of a half 
step. 

75. What is a natural or cancel ? 

A natural or cancel is a sign (t[) which removes the 
effect of a sharp or flat. 

76. What do the letters D. S. signify ? 

D. S. is the abbreviation for the Italian words dal segne 
(dal sa'nyo), meaning "from the sign", in which case the mu- 
sic is to be repeated from the sign employed : ;8', ^y etc. 

14 



Rudiments of Music 



77. What do the letters D. C. signify ? 

D. C. or Da Capo (da ka'po) Italian, *'fromthe beginning," 
is the sign used when a movement is to be repeated from the 
beginning. 

78. What are expression marks? 

Expression marks are signs, words, or phrases used to 
indicate the manner in which the composition should be sung 
or played. See pages 54-55. 



Seventh Grade 

79. What is a key signature ? 

A key signature is the number of sharps or flats placed at 
the beginning of the staff. Also called signature. See page 
42 for Table of Key Signatures. 

80. What is a key? 

A key is a scale based on a particular pitch, as the key of 
C. 

81. Which is the key-note ? 

The first sound of a scale is its key-note. 

82. How many sharp keys are there in common use ? 
There are four sharp keys in common use. The key of G, 

the key of D, the key of A, and the key of E. 

83. What is the rule for finding the key-note in sharp 
keys? 

In sharp keys, that is, when the key-signature consists of 
sharps, the key-note, i or Do, is on the next degree above the 
last sharp. 

84. What key has one sharp for its signature ? Where is i 
or Do ? Where is 8 ? 

The key of G has one sharp, i or Do is on the second 
line of the treble staff. 8 is in the first space above the staff. 
See page 42. 

Pupils should represent 1,4, 2, 5, 3, 6, 2, 7, 8, etc., on the staff in the 
key of G. 

15 



Rudiments of Music 



85. What key has two sharps for its signature ? Where is 
I or Do ? Where is 8 ? 

The key of D has two sharps, i or Do is in the first space 
below the treble staff, and 8 is on the fourth line. 

Exercise : Represent on the staff 1,3, 5, 8, 2, 4, 6, etc. 

86. What key has three sharps for its signature ? Where 
is I or Do placed ? 

The key of A has three sharps, i or Do is in the second 
space of the treble staff, and 8 is on the first added line 
above the staff. 

Exercise : Represent on the staff i, 3, 5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 7, etc. 

87. What key has four sharps for its signature ? Where is 
I or Do placed ? 

The key of E has four sharps, i or Do is on the first line 
of the treble staff, and 8 is in the fourth space. 

Exercise: Represent on the staff i, 3, 5, 8, 2, 4, 6, 7, etc. 

88. How many flat keys are there in common use ? 
There are four flat keys in common use ; the key of F, the 

key of B flat, the key of E flat, and the key of A flat. 

09. What is the rule for finding the key-note in flat keys ? 

In flat keys, that is, when the key-signature consists of flats, 
the key-note, i or Do, is on the fourth staff degree below the 
last flat, or in other words the flat before the last marked 
in the signature. 

90. What key has one flat for its signature ? Where is i 
or Do ? 

The key of F has one flat, i or Do is in the first space of 
the treble staff, and 8 is on the fifth line. 

Exercise : Represent on the staff i, 3, 5, 8, 7, 2, 4, etc. 

91. What key has two flats for its signature ? Where is i 
or Do? 

The key of B flat has two flats, i or Do is on the third 
line of the treble staff, and 8 is in the second space above the 
staff. 

Exercise : Represent on the staff i, 3, 5, 8, 6, 4, 2, 7, 8, etc. 

16 



Rudiments of Music 



92. What key has three flats for its signature ? Where is 
I or Do ? 

The key of E flat has three flats, i or Do is on the first line 
of the treble staff, and 8 is in the fourth space. 
Pupils should represent different pitches in this key. 

93. What key has four flats for its signature ? Where is 
I or Do ? 

The key of A flat has four flats, i or Do is in the second 
space of the treble staff, and 8 is on the first added line 
above the staff. 

Pupils should represent different pitches in this key. 

94. Which is the leading tone ? 

The seventh tone of a scale is the leading tone, so named 
because of its tendency to ascend. 

95. What is syncopation ? 

When regular accent is disturbed by beginning a tone on 
an unaccented beat or pulse, and sustaining it into the next 
accented one, the effect is called syncopation. Syncopation 
may extend from measure to measure. 

4 J J J I J J J I- J J J I . [| 



96. What is the meaning of al fine ? 

Al fine (al ft'ni) means to the end. Usually preceded by 
the sign D. C. or D. S. See Nos. 77, 76. 

97. What does a pause (^) placed over a double bar sig- 
nify ? 

A pause over a double bar marks the end of a composi- 
tion. See also No. 67. 

98. What is the difference between a rest and a pause ? 

A rest by itself does not interrupt the speed or movement ; 
a pause does. See No. 67. 

99. What is the difference between a tie and a slur ? 
While the tie and the slur both are curved lines, the tie 

affects two successive notes of the same pitch, but the slur af- 
fects two or more notes of different pitches. 

17 



Rudiments of Music 



100. What is the meaning of legato ? 
Legato (la-ga'tS) means tied — in an even, continuous, 
'flowing manner. 

loi. What is the meaning of staccato ? 
Staccato (sta-ka'to) means detached, 

' I # I /^i Staccato Marks,— direct that the tones 
I ^ ' f I I be distinct, separated from each other. 

The wedge-shaped marks are the most emphatic staccato 
signs; dots over or under the notes with a sweeping curve 
mark the slightest staccato. The latter effect is called non 
legato, 

102. What are first and second endings ? 

"7Itlu^\2d time 1 ^st and 2d endings are signs indicat- 
ing that, in the repetition, the music 
marked 2d time must be substituted 



1^ 



for that under the sign ist time, 

103. What does coda mean ? 

The word COda (k6'da) means a tail. It is used in music 
to describe an extra ending to a composition. 

104. What is a grace-note ? 

A grace-note is a small note with or without a stroke 
across the stem, representing a passing tone preceding an 
essential tone, and borrowing the time it occupies from the 
essential tone. ^ 

105. What is the great staff ? 

The great staff is the combined treble and bass staves, for- 
merly written as an eleven-line staff. 

To distinguish between pitches in different octaves, the 
following distinction is made; great octave, small octave, 
one-lined octave, two-lined octave. 

C (great c) the c on the second line below the bass staff. 

c ( small c ) the c in the second space of the bass staff. 

c (one-lined c ) the c on the first leger line above the bass 
staff and on the first leger line below the treble staff. 

c ( two-lined c ) the c in the third space of the treble staff. 



18 



Rudiments of Music 



i 



w 



^- 



CDEFGABIlc def g abl 



Great Octave. 



Small Octave. 



m 



HH^ 



c 3 e r g 



One-Lined Octave 



bMcJ el g a ^||c 
Two-Lined Octave 



Eighth Grade 



io6. How many kinds of scales are there ? 
In the modem system of music there are two kinds of 
scales : diatonic and chromatic. 

107. What is a diatonic scale ? 

A series of eight tones proceeding in numerical order from 
the first degree to the eighth degree by five steps and two 
half-^teps is termed a diatonic scale. In other words a dia- 
tonic scale is a scale consisting of steps and half-steps. 

108. What are the names of the degrees of the diatonic 
scale? 



19 



Rudiments of Music 



The degrees of the diatonic 

known by the following names : 
I St degree — Tonic 



2d 

3d 


Supertonic 
Mediant 


4th 


Subdominant 


5th 


Dominant 


6th 


Submediant 


7th 


( Leading-note 

i ^^ 

( Subtonic 



scale, major or minor, are 

Most important sound in the 
scale. 

Sound "above the tonic." 

About ''midway" between the 
tonic and dominant. 

The lower or under domi- 
nant. 

The second most important 
sound in the scale. 

About "midway" between 
the tonic and the under- 
dominant. 

So named because of its ten- 
dency to ascend ; the sound 
under the tonic. 



i 



1 

•8 

S 


i 


1 


1 


If 




3, 




en 


„^ 



109. How many forms of the diatonic scale are used in 
modern music ? 

Of the many diatonic forms or modes in which the scale 
degrees have been arranged at different periods in the history 
of music, only two are used in modem music, — major and mi; 
nor, — named thus because of the nature of the interval be- 
tween the first and the third degrees of the scale. 

no. What is a major scale ? 

A major scale is a diatonic scale between whose first and 
third degrees the interval is a major third. See No. 20. 



Rudiments of Music 



III. What is a minor scale ? 

A minor scale is a diatonic scale between whose first and 
third degrees the interval is a minor third. 



The Minor Scale. 



La 


1—6 


Sol 


— 5— 


Fa 


4 


Mi 


— 3 — 


Re 


2 


Do 


I 


Si 


— 7— 


La 


—6— 



112. What is a chromatic scale ? 

A series of twelve half-steps within an octave is called a 
chromatic scale. 

The Chromatic Scale. 





-8—1- 




stbi. 


7 


te, li. 


lebe. 


6 


«5,si(sa) 


(sel)scb5. 


5 

A. 


»4.,fi. 


me b3> 
rab2. 


— 3 

— 2 


$2,ri. 
«1,di. 




— 1 

21 



Rudiments of Music 



113. What is the rule for writing the chromatic scale ? 
The common method of representing the chromatic scale 

is to use sharp signs (}(, x> t},) in the ascending scale, and flat 
signs (b, W?, i},) in the descending scale except in the case of 
l?5 when jjf^ is usually substituted. 

114. Is this rule always followed? 

This rule is not always followed. There are various ways 
of writing the chromatic scale. Its notation differs accord- 
ing to the key in which it occurs and according to the har- 
mony with which it is connected. 



CHROMATIC SCALES 
Key of C. Ascending. 



i 



=^=si 



I #r 2 #2 3 4 #4 5 #5 6 J}6 7 8 
Do Di Re Ri Mi Fa Fi Sol Si La Li Si Do 



Descending. 



i 



-^— p— l7 r 



g^ fi» — 90 — s»— l7p- 



8 7 by 6 b6 5 b5 4 3 b3 2 b2 I 
Do Si Se La Le Sol Se Fa Mi Me Re Ra Do 



Key of G. 



l¥. 



xr 



i 



l=g=g-^^=g=b ^-^-b>- 



- ^ — <g'^=S# — zy- frM- 



22 



Rudiments of Music 



Key of D. 



i 



w 



^^^^^E^E$^E^^k 



Sn- ^^A 



-&- 



^ g ^ bm 



:22=i}«=^fe=^ 



Key of A. 



^..^^^-^ife^ 



-<9— K« — ^- 



m 



M -^ ^ ^-^^-T T-^^ 



=g^t|^— «g- 6p ^j 



Key of E. 



m 



^=^|s=3=ai 



rft r-^^ 



3=E«II^ 



;^^^^^^^^^ 



Key of B. 



m 



p 



-zr It-w -^ ■>**■ 



-^r ^ - p a ^ _M-^ ±± 



-«>- 



^i^-^-^ ' =^^^F=jF=j=^ 



23 



J 



Rudiments of Music 



Key of F#. 



i 



<mi 



fr* Xf 



g x » g - 



r= 



~/^ XJ 



( g x # 



^^^^--»^||' - ^^ I. . ^m 



Key of Cl 



^ 



g^ x# 



fr^ X* gjHK 



a^ x y- 



dtJ 



-($►- *-•- 



^^^•--^-->^^^.-^.^ l 



i 



Key of F. 



- ^, ^ it * ^ ^^ 



=E=#C=^^^ 



i 



-^— ?^-i ^ *-^-^ 



" ^' ^~i^ir .., i» ^ I 



p 



Key of Bb. 



■^_^ , . ^. IT^ ^^h. 



i 

i 



Key of Eb. 



-^ ^ §0r 



m 



^=^^^^^^^^ 



g '<' 



m 



ff g- b * ::rT« 



:?»= 



1^ -s^ l>« 



24 



Rudiments of Music 



Key of Ab. 



i 



^■ 



.^-^ e , ^ » r ^ tl « - 1 *1 



P^) g n * ^ 1] ' 



i 



!? [, ^ -^ ' ^ I* ^ l?l?*: 



S 



^ <g l ?>-^rEiS =^ 



Key of D|7. 



i 



fci 



W^^ 



g^^ ti, ^' n> ~^r^^ 



i 



bb t ^ ^ i ?*~n>b» ^ 



i2i2i 



jgL ^ I ?* g. :ggi= 



Key of Gt>. 



^ 



^i-. « i |. «■ >- ^ 



-«5>- 



b e g ^ g 



lEzdft: 






Key of Cb. 



^^-7^:^7.-^5^^ 



^^^^^^^^^K^ 



gbb * a; ^ = 



*S 



Rudiments of Music 



115. How many keys have the same signature, and what 
are they called ? 

A major scale and a minor scale based upon its sixth degree 
have always the same signature, or none, as in the keys of 
C major and A minor ; and the two scales, having so many 
tones in common, are called relative major and minor 
keys and sometimes parallel keys. See Nos. m, 116, 129 
to 132. 

116, Where is the relative minor found ? 

The tonic or key-note (ist degree) of the relative minor of 
any major key is always a minor third or three half steps 
below the tonic of that major ; and, conversely, the tonic of 
the relative major of a minor key is always a minor third or 
three half steps above the tonic of that minor. 



Relative Major Key Relative Minor Key 
of A minor. of C major — Natural form 



C major: 



mmor 



.g ; <g^ ' ^ g -«g- 



Harmonic form — A minor scale. 



M _,^^ ^^ ^^^h^r 



Melodic form — A minor scale. 



i 



I^JH ^^^^ 



-ZSr-^ 



^s^-e^ 



-O- -<5^ 



117. Why are sharps, flats, and naturals used in writing 
scales ? 

Sharps, flats, and naturals are used in writing scales in 
order to indicate the successive steps and half-steps which 
the formation of the different scales requires. 

26 



Rudiments of Music 



Ii8. What two keys have one sharp for their signature ? 
Where is i or Do placed in each ? 

The keys G major and E minor have the same signature, 
one sharp, F sharp, i or Do in both keys is on the second 
line of the treble staff and 8 is in the first space above the 
staff. 



i 



w^*^ 



i 



1 19, What two keys have two sharps for their signature ? 
Where is i or Do placed ? 

The keys of D major and B minor have the same signature, 
two sharps, F sharp and C sharp, i or Do in both keys is in 
the first space below the treble staff and 8 is on the fourth 
line. 

* 



p^ 



120. What two keys have three sharps for their signature? 
Where is i or Do ? 

The keys A major and F sharp minor have the same signa- 
ture, three sharps, F sharp, C sharp, and G sharp, i or Do 
in both keys is in the second space of the treble staff and 
8 is on the first added line above the staff. 




121. What two keys have four sharps for their signature ? 
Where is i or Do ? 

The keys E major and C sharp minor have the same sig- 
nature, four sharps, F sharp, C sharp, G sharp, and D sharp. 
I or Do is on the first line of the treble staff and 8 is in the 
fourth space. 



i 



ft 



27 



I 



Rudiments of Music 



122, What two scales have one flat for their signature? 
Where is i or Do ? 

The keys F major and D minor have the same signature, 
one flat, B flat, i or Do is in the first space of the treble 
staff and 8 is on the fifth line. 



i 



i 



123, What two keys have two flats for their signature? 
Where is i or Do ? 

The keys B flat major and G minor have the same signa- 
ture, two flats, B flat and E flat, i or Do is on the third line 
of the treble staff and 8 is in the second space above the 
staff. 



±1 



Wz 



I 



124. What two keys have three flats for their signature ? 
Where is i or Do ? 

The keys E flat major and C minor have the same signa- 
ture, three flats, B flat, E flat, and A flat, i or Do is on the 
first line of the treble staff and 8 is in the fourth space. 



^ 



i 



125. What two keys have four flats for their signature ? 
Where is i or Do ? 

The keys A flat major and F minor have the same signature, 
four flats, B flat, E flat, A flat, and D flat, i or Do is in the 
second space of the treble staff and 8 is on the first added 
line above the staff. 



i 



^ 



s 



I 



28 



Rudiments of Music 



126. What is transposition ? 

The changing of a piece from one key to another is called 
transposition. 

Children of this grade should be able to transpose any exercise or 
song readily. 

EXAMPLE IN TRANSPOSITION ' 



i 



^^^^^^ 



#=T^ 






The above transposed a third higher. 



^ 



ir^~ir- r 



#-^ 



=t= 



« 



The original transposed a third lower. 



W 



'■<slj 



^M=i 



127. What is transition ? 

Transition is the sudden passing out of one key into an- 
other. The part of the signature which does not appear in 
the new key is cancelled just before the heavy bar marking 
the close of the first key ; thus, — 



^^i 



Transition from the key whose signature is four flats to the 
key whose signature is one flat. 



Ninth Grade 

128. What is a minor scale ? 

A minor scale is a diatonic scale between whose first and 
third degrees the interval is a minor third. See No. 1 11. 

29 



Rudiments of Music 



129, How many forms has the minor diatonic scale ? 

The minor diatonic scale has three forms ; the first section 
or lower tetrachord (a Greek word meaning four sounds ) is 
always based upon the same model : 

I St degree to 2d degree — 2d to 3d — 3d to 4th 
Step Half-step Step 

The upper tetrachord is the variable part of the scale. All 
the forms are interchangeably used in modern music. 



Normal 
major 
scale 






E S @ 



■h 

r 



11 7«A- ::::_[ 



7 


£. 




AKendiDg 


Descending 








f 


r 


— «s— 


— «s— 

— «4— 


5 

A 


5 


5 








4 


4 


4 


3 
2 


3 


3 




«• 


5 








I 




I 








7 


7 
< 


7 








0-- 

Is 


§ 







I 

I 

o 

H 



8th ^ 
Uth 



6th 

5th 

4th 

3rd 
2nd 

I8t 



The numerical notation of the major scale is retained in the diagrams 
of the minor scale for the sake of convenient comparison ; of course the 
distinction must be made between the ideas 6 and the ist degree, al- 
though both terms express the same sound in the minor scale. These 
apparently contradictory terms are due to the common method of de- 
ducing the minor scale from its relative major scale. 



30 



Rudiments of Music 



130. With which minor scale does the study of minor 
keys begin ? 

The study of the minor keys usually begins with the minor 
scale based upon the sixth degree of the normal major scale. 
See No. 129. 

131. What is the meaning of relative major and minor 
keys? 

By comparing the three forms of the minor scale with the 
normal major scale (No. 129), it will be seen that several of 
the sounds in each, in fact, all of the first, are identical. For 
this reason the two scales are called relative major and mi- 
nor keys. 

132. Why do a major key and its relative minor have the 
same signature ? 

On account of their relationship or derivation, a major key 
and its relative minor have the same signature, or none, as 
in the keys of C major and A minor. See No. 116. 

133. How is the complement of a given key-signature 
expressed ? 

The complement of a given key-signature is expressed 
by the number of opposite signs, sharps and flats being con- 
sidered opposite ; example : 
Possible total, 7 signs. 

Given key, 3 sharps ; 
Complementary key, 4 flats. 

134. What are the positions of the key-note of a key and 
the key-note of its complementary key ? 

The positions of the key-note of a key and the key-note of 
its complementary key are the same. 



31 



Rudiments of Music 



COMPLEMENTARY TABLE 

Showing identical positions of key-notes. 
Signature Signature 

oft = 7i> 



4 


— 


6l> 


^m 


- 


St' 


3# 


- 


4^ 


4 


- 


3^ 


sIK 


- 


2t? 


6» 


- 


lb 


7j} 


>. 


ot> 



XT ^ -#- 



^p^ 



mm 




^^ 



*i 



^^^ 



^^ 



^ 



135- Write the table of complementary keys, 

136; What is an interval? 

The difference or distance in pitch between two sounds is 
called an intervaL 

137, How are intervals reckoned ? 

Intervals may be reckoned upward or downward. They 
are always calculated upward unless otherwise expressly 
stated. 

32 



Rudiments of Music 



i 



E^ 



Ascending Intervals 



etc. 



Descending Intervals 



i 



-^h- 



-:i&- 



-^- 



etc. 



138. What is the standard of measurement of intervals ? 
The half-step is the standard of measurement in the cal- 
culation of intervals. 

139. What is a diatonic half -step ? 

A half -step is diatonic when it exists between two differ- 
ent degrees of the scale ; as from 7 to 8, i to ba ; or, e to f, 
c to d flat, etc. 



4^^sfe^Mj 



140, Explain the meaning of the word '^diatonic." 

The word "diatonic" means "through the tones or degrees 
of the scale" or through the steps and half-steps of a given 
scale. 

141 . What is a chromatic half -step ? 

A half-step is chromatic when it exists between two 
sounds of the same name, one altered by a sharp, flat, or 
other transposing sign ; as from i to J{i, 2 to 1?2 ; or c to cj(, 
d to dl?, etc. 



i^^i^ 



142. Explain the meaning of the word "chromatic." 

The word "chromatic" means "colored," and is used in a 
figurative sense. 

143. What does the term prime signify ? 

Intervals may be calculated from any degree or sound of 
the scale, and the first sound selected is called prime. 



Rudiments of Music 



144. Is prime an interval ? 

The tonic itself, being prime or unison, though not really 
an interval, is always included in the list of intervals. 

145. What is a second? 

The sound above or below prime is called a second; a 
second, therefore, is the interval between two successive de- 
grees. 



$ 



^—^ — f9-^—^ — s=J 



etc. 



(U 


73 


0) 


T3 


2 


F 




g 


S 


Fi 


•c 










•c 


Ph 


en 


Ah 


W 


Pw 



13 

C 

o 



The normal scale comprises seven seconds, c to d, — d to 
e, — eto f, etc., whose mtervals are not all equal. Two of 
the seconds^ e to f and b to c, are small seconds ( half-steps) 
while the remaining five are greater seconds (steps). 

This, difference of distance constitutes the quality of an in- 
terval ; the small seconds are called minor seconds and the 
greater, w^'^r seconds. See Nos. 20, 129. 

146. What is a third ? 

A third is an interval comprising three degrees. 

Thirds : c, prime — c to e, a third ; 

d> prime — d to f , a third, etc. 



i 



W 



e^^ 



etc. 



(U 


-O 


0) 


g 


•b 


g 


•c 


^ 


•c 


Pm 


H 


ft, 






In constructing a third on each degree of the scale, differ- 
ences of quality will again be observed ; namely, three major 
thirds, each comprising two steps: c to e — f to a — g to b, 
and four minor thirds, each comprising a step and half-step: 
d to f — e to g — a to c — b to d. (The seventh third is de- 
rived by extending the measurement into the next octave 
higher.) 

34 



Rudiments of Music 



147. What is a fourth ? 

A fourth is an interval comprising four degrees. 



i 



¥- 



I 



148. What is a fifth? 

A fifth is an interval of five degrees. 



i 



i 



149. What is a sixth? 

A sixth is an interval of six degrees. 



g ^^ 



150. What is a seventh ? 

A seventh is an interval of seven degrees. 



i 



i 



151. What is an octave ? 

An octave is an interval of eight diatonic tones or de- 
grees. 



i 



izz: 



I 



152. What is a minor interval ? 

An interval one half-step less than a major interval is 
called a minor interval. 



Major 3d. 



i 



Minor 3d. 



35 



Rudiments of Music 



153. How may a major interval be changed to minor ? 

A major interval may be changed to minor by lowering its 
upper note a chromatic half-step or raising its lower note a 
chromatic half-step. The change, of course, is effected by 
the use of an accidental. 



i 



Major 6th. 



Minor 6ths. 



"1 



zitsc 



i 



154. How may a minor interval be changed to major ? 

A minor interval may be changed to major by raising its 
upper note a chromatic half-step or lowering its under note 
a chromatic half-step. 



I Major 2d. Minor ads. V Major 3d. Minor 3ds. ] 



^m 

kJ -<$^ 



^mi 



~:g!2^ 



-p^ 



-jt 



tr^-pr 



155. To what interval is the term perfect applied ? 

The term perfect is applied to the octave, fifth, and fourth. 



Perfect 8ve. Perfect 5th. Perfect 4th. 



i 



156. How are augmented intervals formed ? 

Perfect and major intervals become augmented intervals 
when they are extended by a chromatic half-step, either by 
raising the upper note or lowering the under note by an acci- 
dental. 



Perf. 4th. I Aug. 4ths. | Major 2d. | Aug. 2ds. ) 



fe 



^ 



'r^ 



^m 



-IK 



-&^ 



I 



36 



Rudiments of Music 



157. What is a diminished interval ? 

An interval is called diminished when it is a chromatic 
half-step less than a perfect or minor interval. 



Per. 5th. f . Dim. 5ths. ~] Min. 3d. 



i^ 



p 



-m 



Dim. 3ds. | 

i 



1^ 



High School 

158. How may an interval be inverted ? 
An interval (a) may be inverted by transposing its lower 
note an octave higher (d) or its higher note an octave lower 

^ Inverted. ^ Inverted. 



i 



I 



159. State the eflFect of inversion on the five kinds of in- n 
tervals. 

Perfect intervals, when inverted, remain perfect, major 
intervals become minor, minor intervals become major, aug- 
mented intervals become diminished, and diminished inter- 
vals become augmented. 

Inversion of Intervals 

Perfect remain Perfect. Major become Minor. Minor become Major. 
Perf. 4th. Perf. sth. Maj. 3d. Min. 6th. Min. 3d. Maj. 6th. 



i 



^ 



^$^ 



Inverted. 



Inverted. 



Augmented become Diminished. Diminished become Augmented. 
Aug. sth. Dim. 4th. Dim. 5th. Aug. 4th. 



Rudiments of Music 



i6o. Is the quality of perfect intervals changed by in- 
version ? 

It will be noticed that perfect intervals alone retain their 
original quality or character, becoming neither greater nor less 
by the process of inversion. This is one reason attributed to 
the use of the word "perfect." 

A perfect 5th becoming by inversion a perfect 4th. 



i 



I 



i6i. What is a diatonic interval? 
A diatonic interval is one that occurs between two tones 
of a normal major or minor scale. 

Diatonic Major 6ths 
C Major A Minor 

n 



g 



162. What is a chromatic interval ? 
A chromatic interval is one that occurs between a chro- 
matic tone of a normal scale and a tone foreign to that scale. 

Chromatic Minor 6th. 
C Major. 



i 



^i 



163. What is an enharmonic interval? 
An enharmonic interval is a unison represented by a 
change of notation : 



i 



?^ 



I 



164. Upon what is the computation of intervals based ? 

The computation of intervals is based upon the major 
scale ; that is, to determine the quality of an interval, the 
first tone may be taken as i of the major scale beginning on 
that tone and the distance to the second tone can be meas- 
ured through the steps of that scale. 

38 



Rudiments of Music 



165. What is a chord? 

The simuhaneous sounding of two or more tones of differ- 
ent pitch is termed a chord. Many theorists define a chord 
as a simultaneous sounding of not less than three tones of 
different pitch. 




166. What interval is the basis of all chord construction? 
The interval of a third is the basis of all chord construc- 



tion. 



i 



^ 7-^g-t^ 



^ 



167. What is a common chord or triad ? 

The combination of a tone with the third and perfect fifth 
degrees of a scale (major or minor) is called a common 
chord or triad. 



^^B 



168. Name the different kinds of chords according to their 
quality. 

Chords are major, minor, augmented, or diminished accord- 
ing to the quality of the intervals (thirds and fifths) of which 
they are composed. 

Major Minor Augmented Diminished 



i 



^n^ 



^=-is 



169. Define a major triad. 

A major triad consists of a tone with its major third and 



perfect fifth. 



h^^-|-f- |=l=B 



39 



Rudiments of Music 



170. Define a minor triad. 

A minor triad consists of a tone with its minor third 
perfect fifth. 



and 



171. Define an augmented triad. 

An augmented triad consists of a tone with its major 
third and augmented fifth. 




fcMz ^ 



172. Define a diminished triad. 

A diminished triad consists of a tone with its minor third 
and diminished fifth. 



i 



W—M§: 



I 



173. What is the root of a chord ? 

When the tones of a chord are at intervals of a third from 
one another the lowest tone is called tlfe root. 



Isd=i =l = ^ 



In each of these chords the lowest notes, C, G, and F re- 
spectively, are the roots. 

174. When is a chord in its root position ? 

When a chord is constructed of thirds it is said to be in its 
normal or root position. All the chords, therefore, in sec- 
tions 169 to 173 are in root position. 

175. How may a chord be inverted? 

A chord, like an interval, may be inverted by making any 
other note than its root the lowest note or bass. 



i 



(a) 



(4) 



W :*: 



^=^^r 



^ 



First Inversion. 



Second Inversion. 



40 



Rudiments of Music 



176. What is meant by the first inversion of a chord? 
When the third of the original chord is taken as the bass, 

as in chords (a) and (^), No. 175, the chord is called the 
first inversion of the original chord. 

177. What is meant by the 'second inversion of a chord ? 
When the fifth of the original chord is taken as the bass, 

as in chords (r) and (</), No. 175, the chord is called the 
second inversion of the original chord. 

178. What is a chord of the seventh? 

If to a triad a third be added ( a seventh from the root ), 
a chord of the seventh is obtained. 




179. What is a chord of the ninth? 

If to a chord of the seventh another third (a ninth from 
the root) be added, a chord of the ninth is obtained. 




41 



Appendix. 



i 



TABLE OF KEY SIGNATURES 
Major and Minor 



Key of C Major 
or A Minor 



9^ 



i 



Key of D Major 
or B Minor 



a 



l=r-^ 



H 



tt 



Key of E Major 
or CJf Minor 



=fe 



i^^ 



m^ 



Yij^-^ of FJt Major 
or Djf iviii 




i 



Key of G Major 
or E Minor 



^^ 



i 



tt 



I^Z 



Key of A Major 
or rti Minor 



^ 



^ 



S==r 



Key of B Major 
or Gjf Minor 



!»= 



^ 



Key of CJf Major 
or Ati Minor 



N »^^ 



42 



Appendix. 



^ 



Key of F Major 
or D Minor 



?^ 



=?= 



i 



Key of fit? Major 
or G Minor 



i^ 



— ^ — 



P 



Key of Eb Major 
or C Minor 



i^ 



m 



-25- 



i 



fer 



w 



Key of At? Major 
or F Minor 



if^ 



^ 



I 



iS= 



^ 



Key of Db Major 
or Bb Minor 



ifife 



m- 



-^ 



'm 



n 



i^^ 



Key of Gb Major 
or Eb Minor 



9^ 



m-- 



i 



jffi 



^ 



Key of Cb Major 
or Ab Minor 



^ 



W^=^ 



43 



Appendix. 





TABLE 


OF MAJOR KEYS 


Key 


Signature 




C . . . 


[ no signature ] 


G . . . 


I sharp . 


. . F# 


D . . . 


2 sharps . 


. . F#.Ci| 


A . . . 


. 3 sharps . 


. • FJ},C#,G# 


E . . . 


4 sharps . 


. . F#,CJ},G#,D# 


B . . . 


. 5 sharps . 


. . F#,C#,GJ},D#,A# 


Fif .. 


6 sharps . 


. . Fjf, eft Gjf. D#, Ajf, Ejt 


C# .. 


. 7 sharps . 


. Eft C#, Gft D#, A#, E#, BJI 


F . . . 


. I flat ... . 


. Bl? 


Bi? . . 


. 2 flats . . 


. Bb, Eb 


Eb . . 


. 3 flats . . 


. BP, Eb, Ab 


At^ . . 


. 4 flats . . . 


. Bb, Eb, Ab, Db 


Db . . 


. 5 flats . . . 


. Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, Gb 


Gb . . 


. 6 flats . . . 


. Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, Gb, cb 


cb . . 


. 7 flats . . . 


. Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, Gb, cb, Fb 



44 



DIAGRAM SHOWING K 
Cb G«> Db Ab Eb Bb F C 



-p8=i-r 



-8=f 
-7- 



- —4^ 



«=i- 



•8=1- 






-2- 

-1- 



J=rl- 



-8-1- 



A 

Ab 
G 

Gb 

F 
E 

Eb 

D 
Db 
C 



•8=1 



- -8=1- 



-1- 
-7- 



B(Ch) — 7- 

A 

Ab 
Q 

Gb 
F 
E(Fb) 
Eb 
D 

Db 
c 

B(C»] 

Bb 



-4- 

-a- 



KEY RELATIONSHIP 




J— I A 

CI 
G 

Fl 

F(E«)| 

£ 

-H Dl 

D 

Ql 
=liC(JBj 
B 
At 
A 
Gt 
G 
Ft 

F(Ei: 

E 

Di 

D 
CI 

c 

B 
Al 



■8«1- 



-7 



■8 = 1" 



-e- 



'8=1 

— 7- 



-1- 
-7- 



h8 = l 
-7- 



-1- 

-7- 



-5- 



-8=1- 



■1- — ^ 



■1- 

-7- 



Appendix. 



The key-signatures and key-notes of the fifteen major keys 
are shown in the diagram on the preceding page; also the 
derivation of each key. 

The diagram is very useful in explaining the origin and 
construction of all the major keys in what is known as the 
modem tone-system. 

The column of figures in the center, and the letter-names 
on either side of the vertical lines supporting the short hori- 
zontal lines between, indicate the tones of the diatonic and 
chromatic scales based upon the fundamental tone C whose 
number is i to 8. 

On the right of the central column are shown the sharp 
keys, each erected upon the fifth degree of its predecessor, 
until the key of C sharp is reached, having seven sharps. 
Beyond this it is not practical to proceed in the same direc- 
tion. 

On the left of the central column are shown the flat keys, 
each erected upon the under-fifth degree (or fourth degree) 
of its predecessor. 

The flat keys proceed towards the left until the Key of C 
flat, having seven flats, is reached, beyond which it is not 
practical to continue in that direction. 

It will be found on examination that there are three pairs 
of keys identical in pitch (as indicated by the equivalent hori- 
zontal lines), yet not identical in name. 

This identity in tone is termed enharmonic relatioaship. 
By substituting one key for the other in the same pair and re- 
turning to the central column or key, we are able to compre- 
hend the unity of the system of keys or scales through what 
is termed the Circle by Fifths. 



Enharmonic Equivalents 




fee 




45 






^ 



Appendix. 



The word "enharmonic'' used thus is a notational term 
meaning a change of representation without change of pitch. 

It is used in another sense, implying a difference of pitch 
less than a semitone. 

In Greek music the word "enharmonic" was of generic sig- 
nificance, since the system recognized three orders of inter- 
vals and scales ; diatonic, chromatic, and enharmonic. 

CIRCLE OF KEYS 
C 



B^ 



Et? 



^ 



^ 



^^ 



^ 






D!>or# CJf 



Ct^wr^B 



f 1 | V*,i».j ^^^ 



Gt^or^ Ftt 

I f i^i" ft" I 

An arrangement of keys or tonalities in the order of their 
closest relationship — ^that is, each key-note being the domi- 
nant (over fifth), or su1>dominant (under fifth) of the one be- 
fore it. 

The circle may be made in either direction from the key 
of C by making the necessary change at one of the three 
possible points. See Enharmonic EquivalentSi page 45, 

46 



Rudiments of Music 



ff 
^ 



O 

a 

I 






I 

P 

80 



''^^ 









to 



s 



I 

I" 

^ c 






m. 



o 
I 

00 



47 



M 
NO 



CO 

M 

^ >o r 
00 






1 

00 



I 



II 
1^ 



.1 



t'a^ 






CO 



vO 



to 
ro 

00 

VO 
to 

CO 

I N 



Rudiments of Music 



to 



4 



£ 






•SI'S 



1 



i i 

i ^ 

CO 






VO I 

M 
CI 

to 
to 

VO 

VO 
lO 



^ 



CO 



c 



1 



I 



^1 
5< 



^ 1 


§ 




s 


00 


ii 


r^ 


H 


VO 


"8 


u^ 


1 



•§. i 



4= 
4 






vO I 
CI 

eo 
»o 

VO 



^ •^ 



lO 



«^ 

eo 

A M 

^vo I 
00 

VO 

to 

rO 
ei 



T 


^ 




M ^ 


' 


S * 


? 1 


V • 


1 ^ 




§ (^ 








°i 




i M 




fa -s* 




s *= 


vi 


o 




*• c 


V£ 


a 




►r ^i 




§ 5''l 




«4 


=\ 


^1^ 




• s 




5a ^ 




1^ 


\ * 


M 




1 


01 * 


"3 


3i < 


« __ 


B _ 


!<( 


Ol 


S * 


I 


'S s 


^ 


o 




"3 » 




QQ 




? 




{\ 




^ 


1 * 


\ 


S ' 


^ 


et 


Id 











f 



4 



VO I 



I 

I 

s t 

=8= 



*o 



I 
I 



ffi 



i 









15^ I 



fO 



48 



Rudiments of Music 





^ 


m 


S H- 


EH 




m 




l^vOl 




^NO i 


h >o 1 




^vo I 




ja t>.i 




h 1^1 


^ t>.i 




b ^' 




^ M 




N « \ 


\ M 






^ 




bO 


60 




^ 






s « 




M « 1 i 


M 




la <^ 


1 


\\ ^ 


i 


i fo 1 h 


fO 


49 


\< tn 


1 ^ 


i " 


^ ^ 
g 1 


> "^ ft 
vo 42 Q 


"^ 





i ^ 


1^ "O 


£ -^ 


to 


3 J 

:! ■ 




% -- 


& \0 




-- 


S -- 


SO 


s 


S vo 


i t 


1 ^ 

NO ^ 


VO 


1 ^ 


VO 


4« 

11 

s < 

1 




if 

a 


§ Jl 
= ^ « 1 

t « 3 


fO 


•k 

« ^ - 

If 

1 1 


if »o 
1 Q N 

1 


1 


-. 1^^ ' 


1 


ii .-1 1 


Q r^i 


1 


& «^i 


Scale of Cj( Major! 


00 

\\ to 


1 ^1 


■noo 1 ^" 


^) VO 1 

00 

NO 


1 


^vo 1 
00 

VO 


^ ^ 


i 


«^ . 


to 


S to 




^i to 


^ 


i ^ 5 


"^ 




e Th 




la M 




J to h 


fO 




^ CO 




It 










a e« 


^ 




M « 5 


M 








tt 




i M i 


i M 




\\ M 


1 


1^ 


c 




^ 




pi 



49 



Rudiments of Music 





Jjvo 


1 


j^vO 1 




hvO 1 


= 


lll*^' 




M ^1 


1 


^ ^' 




\ i>.l 




|) «-' 




i M 




■ I a « 




h « 




^ - 


1 ' 


s « 




a N 


c 


5 « 


a 


p <N 


i » 


fO 


s 


a to 


s 


ij fO 


g 


«J to 






Q 




» 




^ 




"S i 


"* 


M ^ 
A 


a| 


^ 


a 


la ^ 


i ^' 


lO 


g , 


it 


i i 


u^ 


g 




1 f" 


VO 
vO 


.a -- 

1 ^ 




'; 6 


1- 




if 


al VO 
i:i VO 


! 


^ 




i ^ 




1", rtt: 


>l 


i ^ 


s i 

.SI , 

1 

1 

g r 


> ** 


a 

1' ; 


^ 'O 

1 |ivO 1 
00 


■§1 

li 

a 
1 

if 


! 

^00 


& 
a 


4 ^ 

ft to 
l^voi 

00 




00 


1^ 


) VO 


1 ^ 


' 1 



t ' 




1 ' 


VO 


1 


J to 


1 ' 


10 


"S 

■2 


iJS to 


()5 


-* 


09 


Si Th 


M 5 


^ 


8 
09 


K ^ 


^ 


to 




5 to 










< 


1 N 

5 M 




s « 


jt 




ti 


* - 

j^ 


<^ 




.£^ 


4^ 


..esi 


'^ 


.ii 


i^ 


-i 


i 

i 


41 




J 


^1 


£.'■' 
1 


S 
4 


T^ 


^^•^ 


_L 


§3 




JL±J 


^^ 


SiJ 



so 



Appendix. 



To Find Pitch of Various Keys, — use a c tuning-fork 
or pitch-pipe, international pitch, (517 double vibrations per 
second). 

c (one-lined c) is the c on the first leger line below the 
treble staff. 

c (two-lined c) is the c in the third space of the treble 
staff. 



Key of C : Think e, 8 or i. ' 



i 



Key of G : Thmk 5 in the Key of C, i. ^ 



I 



8, 5 - I 
Key of D : Think 2 in the key of C, i. 



I2ZI 



2^ 

8, 2" 



P h TT^T-^ 



Key of A : Thmk 6 in the key of C, i. 



r^^ 



ff . . '** . .-M 



8, 6 = I 
Key of E : Think 3 in the key of C, i. 



8. 



5' 



Appendix. 



Key of B : Think 7 in the key of C, i. 



i " ' m 



p 



i 



87 — 1 

Key of F# : Think ^4 in the key of C, i. 



4 - . 1, . i^4^4^-^= e 



8 «4 - 
Key of C||: Think |i in tbe key of C, i. 



1^ h iWA^^^ii 



8(ori)j|i » 8 

Key of F: Think ic, 5, then sing i. 



^ 



r=a= 



-9^-^ f ^ 



i 



5. * 



Key of £{>: Think c, 2, then smg i. 



± 



m 



5=3= 



I 



2, I 

Si/ 



Key of Ei? : Think c, 6, then sing 8 or i. 

/IN 



^f=^=|Ai^ 



-^- 



i 



8 » 



6, 

5* 



Appendix. 



Key of Ab : Think c, 3, then sing i. 



^^Jj^ 



321 



i 



8 — 



3» I 



Key of Db: Think c, 7, then sing 8. 



^ 



^ 



^ 



7, 8 

Si/ 



I 



i 



Key of Gb: Think c, JI4, then sing 5, (3), i. 



\l " v\\^^- 



i 



8 - «4. 5 (3) I 
Key of Cb: Think c, ||i, then sing i. 



^ .> \ A\\ i>^ '"..=j^^ 



8 






S3 



TERMS AND SIGNS OF EXPRESSION* 



Accelerando (at-chi-lft^rsLn'dft), ac- 
celerating. 

Adagio (&-d&'j6), slow; literally, 
at leisure. 

Ad libitum (&d llbl-tiim), at the 
pleasure of the performer. 

AUa marcU (&11A mlbr^chlA), in 
the manner of a march. 

AUegretto (al-lA-giAt'td), less 
quick than allegro; diminu- 
tive of allegro. 

Allegro (al-lA'gr6), quick, lively; 
litendly, cheerful. 

Andante (alkx-daa'tA), slow, grace- 
ful; movins at a moderate 
pace ; literally, walking. 

Andantino (&i^&n-td'n6), the di- 
minutive of andante and indi- 
cating here quicker tempo. 

Animato (&-n^ma't6), animated. 

Aasai (as-sa''^), very. 

A tempo (& t6m^p6), return to first 
rate of speed. 

Ben marcato (bdn m&r-k&'t6), weU 
marked. 

Brillante (br^U&n'tft), brilliant, 
sparkling. 

Cantabile (k&n-t&1i)^li), in a sing- 
ing style, or very legato. 

CoUa yoce (kdn& vd'chi), with 
the voice ; Le. taking the time 
from the singer. 

Cemmodo(k6m'm6.d6)) ... ^^„^ 

Comodo(kVm6-d6) '/withease. 

Con anima (kOn fi'n^mfi), with 
animation. 

Con brio (kOn br6''6), with vigor, 
spirit, force. 

Con espressione (kOn fts-prfts-s^ 
O'ni), with expression. 



Con grazia (kdn gr&'ts^), with 

grace. 
Con moto (kOn md^ti), with spirited 

movement. 
Con spirito (kOn 8pS'r^-t6), with 

spirit, energv. 
Con tenereaza (k6n tin-ft^ritt'si), 

with tenderness. 

-::Creeoendo(krft-6hinM6), 

gradually increasing the tone. 
: Diminuendo (d^m^noo- 

ftnMi), gradually lessening the 

*tone. 
Dolce (ddrchA), sweet, soft. 
S (&), and. 
Snergico (&-aftr^j^k6), energetic, 

torcible. 
Bapreesiyo (fts-prfts-a^vi), with 

expression. 
i, forte (fdr'tft), loud. 
ffy fortiasimo (f6r-t^s^m(»), very 

loud. 
fZy lorzando (fdr-ts&i'd6), sharply 

emphasized. 
GI0008O (36-kO's6), humorous, play- 
ful 
Giojoao (]6-y0'86), joyous. 
Giuato (joos'tft), in just, exact time. 
Grandioeo (gr 

sonorous. 



n just, exa( 
i-d^'86). 



grand, 



Grave (gr&^vft), very slow, solemn. 
Grazioso (grft-ts^d'si), graceful, 

elegant. 
Larghetto (Iftr-getai), rather slow ; 

the diminutive of largo^ slow, 

or, literally, larg^*. 
Largo (l&r^gft), slow, broad. 
Legato (lft-^'t6), even, continuous, 

flowing; literally, tied. 
Leggiero (Iftdj^-i'rft), light. 



^ Webster's dictionary symbols of pronunciation used diroughout. 
54 



TERMS AND SIGNS OF EXPRESSION 



Lento (Iftn^tft), literally, slow. 

Lttsingando (loo'z^Dgan'd6), coax- 
ingly, persuasively. 

Ma (m&), but. 

Maestoso (ma-Ss-tO'zi), with dig- 
nity, majesty. 

Marcato (m&r-ka't6), distinct, em- 
phasized ; literally, marked. 

Marcia (mar^chii), march. 

Marziale (mllr-t8^-&'lft), martial, 
in the style of a march. 

Meno (mi'D^), less. 

Meno mosso (mft'n6 mOs^sft), less 
speed, less fast. 

mf, mezzo forte (m6d^z6 fdr'tft), 
half loud. 

Minuetto (m^noo-ftt'tft), a minuet. 

Moderato (mdd-^Tft''t6), moderate. 

MoltO (m(»Kt6), much, very. 

mp, mezzo piano (mSd'z6 pe-&'n6), 
half soft. 

Hon troppo (nOn tr5p'p6), not too 
much. 

p, piano (p^-&'n6), soft. 

rin (p^'9)> a little more. 

Poco pih moto (pC^ft p^''^ mO't6), 
somewhat raster. 

ppy pianissimo (pS'iUnls'sI-mi), 
very soft. 

Prestissimo (prSs-tis'st-mft), very 
quickly. 

Presto (pres^t6), fast, in rapid 
tempo; usually one beat to 
the measure ; literally, quick. 



Rallentando (ria-ien-t&n'dft), be- 
coming slower ; literally, abat- 
ing. Abb. rail. 

Religioso (rft'l^-jO'sft), solemn, de- 
vout. 

Rinf., rinforzando (rln-fOr-ts&n'- 
d6), suddenly emphasized and 
accented. 

Risoluto (r6-z6-loo't6), energetic, 
decided. ^ 

Ritardando(re't&r-dSn'd6),slower; 
literally, retarding. Abb. rit. 

Riten.^ ritenato (re'ts-nu^ti), im- 
mediately slower. 

Scherzando (sker-ts&n'dft), sport- 
ive, playful. 

Semplice (sSm'pl^hi), simple. 

Sempre (s6m'prft), always, contin- 
ually. 

8forzando(sfdr-tsan'd6) (>),with 
special emphasis. 

Solennelle (sO-l^n-nSl^, solemn. 

Sostenuto (sis-t^noo'tft), sus- 
tained. 

Spiritoso (spe-r^.t6's6), spirited. 

Tanto (tanlO), as much, so much. 

Tranquillamente (trlUi-kw^i-la- 
min^tft), calmly, quietly. 

Tranqnillo (tran-kweild), tranquil, 
quiet. 

Veloce (vA-lO'chi), swiftly. 

Vivace (v^-va'cha), gay ; literally, 
lively. 

Vivo (ve'v6), animated. 



55 



INDEX 



{Numbers refer to paragraphs unless otherwise specified,^ 



a, b, c, d, etc 24 

Accent 5^-59 

Accidental 153 

Added lines 16 

AlFine 96 

Augmented chords 168 

intervals 156 

triad 171 

Bar 3-5 

Double- 6 

Barred C page 12 

Bass Staff 12 

Beat 7. 33i 34 

Combined- 36 

Brace 51 

C page 12 

Cancel 75 

C, Barred page 12 

Chord 165-179 

Augmented 168 

Common 167 

Diminished 168 

Inverted 175 

Inversions of a '75-177 

Major 168 

Chord construction 166 

of the seventh 178 

of the ninth 179 

Chromatic 142 

interval 162 



56 



Chromatic — continued 

half-step 141 

scale 112-114 

scale syllables 112 

scales, Table of . . .pages 22-25 

Circle of keys page 45 

Qef 8-10 

F 10, 12, 13 

G 10, II, 13 

Coda 103 

Combined beat 36 

Common Chord 167 

Complement of a key-signa- 
ture 133 

Complementary keys . .page 32 
Complementary table of key- 
notes page 32 

Compound time 39i 44 

duple 45 

quadruple 47 

triple 46 

Computation of intervals. . . 164 

Da Capo 77 

Dal Segno 76 

D.C 77 

Degrees 108 

Diagrams: 
Chromatic scale .... page 2 1 
Key relationship, facing 
page 45 



Index 



Major scale pages 4, 30, 

facing page 45 

Minor scale pages 21, 30 

Diatonic 140 

Diatonic half -step 139 

intervals i6x 

scale 107 

minor scale 128, 129 

Diminished interval 157 

triad 172 

Divided beat 48 

Dodecuple time page 1 1 

Dominant 108 

D.S 76 

Dot 61 

Double- 62 

Dots 62 

Repetition 63 

Double-bar 6 

Double-dot 62 

Double-flat 74 

Double-sharp 73 

Duple time 45, page 1 1 

Eighth-note 15 

-rest 26, 30 

Ending, First 102 

Second 102 

Enharmonic page 45 

equivalents page 45 

intervals 163 

relationship page 45 

Expression marks* 78, pages 54-55 

F def 10, 12, 13 

Fifth 148 

Fifths, circle by page 46 

Fine 96 

First ending 102 

Fjrst inversion 176 

Flat 72 



Flat keys 88, pages 49, 50 

Four-eight time page 1 1 

Four-four time .... 38, page 1 1 

Fourth 147 

Four-two time page 1 1 

Four-part measure 43» 47 

G clef 10, 1 1, 13 

Grace note 104 

Great octave page 19 

staff 105 

Half -beat 48 

Half-note 15 

Half-rest 26,28 

Half -step , 20, 139, 141 

Harmonic minor scale 129 

Hold 67, 97, 98 

Hook ^5* 30 

How to establish key-tones 

page 5» 

International pitch .... page 5 1 

Interval 136 

Intervals 137 

Augmented. 156 

Chromatic 162 

Computation of 164 

Diatonic 161 

Diminished 157 

Enharmonic. 163 

Inversion of 159, 160 

Inverted 158 

Major « 145 

Measurement of 138 

Minor 152 

Perfect 155, 160 

Quality of . . . , 145, x6o 

Standard of measurement 

of 138 

Inversion of a chord 175 

First 175, 176 

57 



Index 



Second 175, 177 

Inverted chord 175 

Inverted interval 158 

Key 9, 80 

Key-note 81, 134 

How to find 83-93* *'^» 

118-125 

Key-notes pages 32, 42-44 

Key relationship, Diagram 

showing . . .facing page 45 

Keys pp. 22-24, 44, 115, 116 

Circle of page 46 

Complementary * 33-^35 

Major pp. 42-44, 51-53 

Minor pages 42-44 

Rules for establishing 

pages 51-53 

Table of Major page 44 

To find jritch of . . . pages 51-53 
Key-signature. . . .79, 115, 118-125 

Key-signatures pages 42-44 

Leading-tone < . . . . 94 

Leger-lines 16 

Letter-names 21 

Letters 24 

lines 2 

Lines and spaces 2 

Lower tetrachord 129 

Major H5. »53» ^54 

Major chord 168 

Major interval 145 

Major keys pages 42-44 

Construction of page 45 

Table of page 44 

Major scale 20, 1 10 

Major scales and their rela- 
tive minor scales, pages 47-50 

Major triad 169 

Measure 7, 31 



Four-part 43 

Three-part 42 

Two-part 41 

Measurement of intervals . . 138, 
146, 164 

Mediant 108 

Melodic form 116 

Melodic minor scale 1 29 

Minor 145 

Minor chord 168 

Minor diatonic scale 1 29 

Minor intervals. ... 1451 153, 154 

Minor keys pages 42-44 

Minor scale in, 12^8-132 

Forms of 129 

Minor scales, relative, pages 47-50 

Minor triad 170 

Moderate tempo 70 

Movement 70 

Names 21 

Letter- 21-24 

Pitch- 24 

Scale- 22 

Syllable- 23 

Natural 75 

Diatonic minor scale 129 

Nine-eight time 46 

Nine-four time page 1 1 

Nine-sixteen time page 1 1 

Ninth, chord of the 179 

Nonuple time page 1 1 

Normal major scale no 

minor scale 129 

Notes 14-J^ 

Octave 151 

Great .^. . . 105 

One-lined 105 

Small 105 

Two-lined 105 

58 



Index 



One-lined octave 105* 

Pause 67, 97, 98 

Perfect 155, 160 

Phrase-mark 66 

Pitch 19 

International page 51 

Pitch of keys pages 51-53 

Pitch-names 24 

Htch-pipe page 51 

Position, root 174 

Primary accent 53 

Prime 143, 444 

Quality 145 

Quadruple time 43* 47 

Quarter-note 15* 35 

Qnarter-rest 26, 29 

Quick tempo 70 

Relationship, key . . .pages 45, 46 

Enharmonic page 45 

Relative major keys. ... 131, 132 
Relative minor keys. ... 131, 132 

Repeat 63 

Repetition dots 63 

Rests 25-30 

Rhythmic accent 53 

Root 173 

Position 174 

Rule for writing chromatic 

Male 113 

Rules for estaUishing keys . 

pages 5«-53 

Scale 20 

Chromatic 1 12-1 14 

Diatonic 107 

Major. 20, 1 10 

Minor 1 1 1 

Relative major 1 15, 1 16, 131, 132 

Relative minor 115, 116, 131,132 

Scale-degrees 108 



Scale-names 22 

Scales .pages 19-26, 47-50 

Chromatic pages 22-25 

Major, and their relative 

minor pages 47-50 

Second 145 

Second ending 102 

Second inversion i75> I77 

Semicircle, barred page i z. 

Seventh , 150 

Chord of the .. 178 

Sextuple time page 1 1 

Sharp 71 

Sharp keys 82-87 

Signature 79 

Key 79 

Time 32 

Signatures : 

TaUe of key pages 42, 44 

Table of time page 1 1 

Signs, time 59 

Simple time 37, 38, 40 

Duple time 41 

Quadruple time 43 

Triple time 42 

Six-eight time 35» 39» 45 

Six-four time page 1 1 

Six-sixteen time page 1 1 

Sixteentb^ote 15 

Sixteenth-rest 26 

Sixth 149 

Slow tempo 70 

Slur 65 

Small octave 105 

Spaces 2 

Staccato loi 

Staff I 

Bass 12 

Tieble 11 

59 



Index 



Standard of measurement . . 138 

Step, half '. 20 

Subdivided beat 49 

Subdominant 108 

Submediant 108 

Subtonic 108 

Supertonic 108 

Syllable-names 23 

Syncopation 95 

Tables: 
Complementary table of 

key-notes page 32 

Key-signature pages 41, 43 

Major keys page 44 

Notes £5 

Rests and notes 26 

Time signatures .... page 1 1 

Tempo 70 

Terms pages 54, 55 

Tetrachord 1 29 

Third 146 

Major no, i|6 

Minor i^ 

Thirty-second note 15 

Thirty-second rest 26 

Three-eight time page 11 

Three-four time. . . 38, 46, page 1 1 

Three-part measure 42 

Three-two time page 1 1 



Tie ..... 60 

Time ,. 31, 37-49» page n 

Time signatures 32 

Time signatures, table of 

page II 

Tonic 108 

Transition 127 

Transposition .- 126 

Treble Staff 11 

Triad 167 

Augmented 171 

Diminished 172 

Major , 169 

Minor 170 

Triplet so 

Triple time 42, 46 

Tuning fork page 51 

^'elve-eight time 47tpage 11 

TWelve-fonr time page 11 

Twelve-sixteen time . . .page 11 
Two-four time . .38, 45, 52, page 1 1 

Two-lined octave page 19 

Two-part measure 41 

Two-two time page 1 1 

Unison 144 

Upper tetrachord 129 

Whole-beat 35 

Whole-note 15 

Whole-rest 26» 27 



60 



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